Famous people identified within the media as having Dyslexia

Albert Einstein

Tom Cruise

Cher

Richard Branson

Learning Disorder

Dyslexia

Dyslexia

 

Specific Learning Disorder associated with an impairment in reading

 

A sensory processing difference which can impact on how an individual interprets auditory and/or visual information. Language proficiency can support reading and literacy however, individuals with dyslexia may excel within the language domain but struggle to read. Dyslexia is a pattern of learning difficulties “characterized by problem with accurate or fluent word recognition, poor decoding, and poor spelling abilities” DSM-5 which can impact negatively on: Word reading accuracy, reading rate or fluency, reading comprehension.

 

Dyslexia and the severity of the learning difficulty based on the DSM-5 (diagnostic criteria):

 

Mild Severity: learning difficulties within one or two academic domains. Mild enough that the individual can compensate and function day to day with intervention and support.

 

Moderate Severity: marked learning difficulties within two or more academic domains. Will struggle to become proficient without daily targeted intervention

 

Severe: Severe learning difficulties affecting several academic domains, requiring substansive specialized and targeted intervention and support. Even with support and accommodation within school or the workplace, “may not be able to complete all activities efficiently.”

 

Getting the correct diagnosis is important as Dyslexia can co-exist with: an impairment in Written Expression, Dyscalculia (impairment in math), Dyspraxia (motor disorder), or ADHD. Individuals with Dyslexia may also struggle with mental wellbeing issues which may include anxiety or depression as a result of their learning difficulties. Some individuals can present with learning and academic delays as a result of social and emotional difficulties.

 

 

 

Assessment: Advanced Clinical Package, Package 1, 2 & 4 Packages & Costs

 

 

 

Support

 

  • Recognised by: schools/ universities/ workplace
  • A school or University can provide an Individual Support Plan, extra time, and possibly teaching and technical support (seek out: Guidance Officer, STLan, Head of Department for each subject, Student disability support)
  • Government examinations including: The English language testing system (IELTS) https://www.ielts.org
  • National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS) https://www.ndis.gov.au

Written Expression

Written Expression

 

Specific Learning Disorder associated with an impairment in Written Expression

 

A sensory processing difference which can impact on how an individual interprets auditory and/or visual information.  Language proficiency can support reading and literacy however, individuals with a Written Expression disorder may excel within the language domain but struggle to write. Based on the DSM-5, a Written Expression Disorder is characterised by difficulties associated with: spelling accuracy, grammar and punctuation accuracy, clarity or organisation of written expression.

 

 

 

Getting the correct diagnosis is important as an impairment in Written Expression (including spelling), can co-exist with: Dyslexia, Dyscalculia (impairment in math), Dyspraxia (motor disorder), or ADHD. Individuals with an Impairment in Written Expression may also struggle with mental wellbeing issues which may include anxiety or depression as a result of their learning difficulties. Some individuals can present with learning and academic delays as a result of social and emotional difficulties.

 

Assessment: Advanced Clinical Package, Package 1 & 2 Packages & Costs

 

 

 

Support

 

  • Recognised by: schools/ universities/ workplace
  • A school or University can provide an Individual Support Plan, extra time, and possibly teaching and technical support (seek out: Guidance Officer, STLan, Head of Department for each subject, Student disability support)
  • Government examinations including: The English language testing system (IELTS) https://www.ielts.org
  • National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS) https://www.ndis.gov.au

 

 

Math (Dyscalculia)

Dyscalculia

 

Specific Learning Disorder associated with an impairment in Math

 

A sensory processing difference which can impact on how an individual perceives and interprets information. Predominantly a visual processing and/or visual memory difference. Characterized by learning and performance difficulties associated with math. The difficulties may include: Number sense, memorisation of arithmetic facts, accurate or fluent calculation, accurate math reasoning.

 

Getting the correct diagnosis is important as an impairment in Math, can co-exist with: Dyslexia, Written Expression, Dyspraxia (motor disorder), or ADHD. Individuals with an Impairment in Math may also struggle with mental wellbeing issues which may include anxiety or depression as a result of their learning difficulties. Some individuals can present with learning and academic delays as a result of social and emotional difficulties.

 

 

 

Assessment: Advanced Clinical Package, Package 1 & 2 Packages & Costs

 

 

 

Support

 

  • Recognised by: schools/ universities/ workplace
  • A school or University can provide an Individual Support Plan, extra time, and possibly teaching and technical support (seek out: Guidance Officer, STLan (support teacher literacy & numeracy), Head of Department for each subject, Student disability support)
  • Government examinations including: The English language testing system (IELTS) https://www.ielts.org
  • National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS) https://www.ndis.gov.au

 

 

Autism

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

 

Persistant developmental differences in regard to how the individual perceives and responds to the world around them. Due to perceptual differences, difficulites tend to emerge regarding social communication, and social norms. Our perception of what others are trying to say to us through facial expression or physical gestures (non-verbal cues) develops during the early years usually preceding language development however, Individuals with ASD can struggle with non-verbal social cues. Misinterpreting or not understanding non-verbal cues can create challenges especially when theorists have proposed that 80 – 90% of face to face communication is non-verbal including: eye contact, facial expressions, physical gestures, and proxemics (how close we stand next to people).

 

 

 

Other perceptual differences can include language. The tone or inclination of what we say can determine what we mean. Emotions are conveyed within how we pitch, and pause when speaking which is often interspersed with visual gestures. Accordingly, individuals with Autism can recall what’s just been said, but misunderstand the meaning (joke, irony, or sarcasm). The environment can also impact. Individuals with Autism can struggle with sensory overload: sight, sound, touch, smell & taste. While we may co-exist with everyday noises which could include a clock (clicking sound), the repetitive sound may be overwhelming, and stressful to someone with ASD. An individual with ASD can also appear compulsive and obsessive in regards to organisation (setting up toys in a row), keeping things in order, hyper focused on one particular toy or activity, or keeping to a set routine.

 

Individuals with ASD may struggle with emotional regulation which may escalate during adolescence. The world and social interaction can be very stressful for someone with ASD resulting in trauma, and subsequent wellbeing issues. Individuals with ASD need explicit instruction in regard to how they interpret their environment, and behavioural protocols.

 

 

 

Every individual is different depending on the traits exhibited and the severity. Some autistic traits can also work to the individuals benefit. Hyper focused attention on a repetitive but highly important task, may set this individual apart from their peers as a specialist or expert. While some individuals may struggle to function day to day, others may be running successful corporations.

 

 

 

Assessment: Advanced Clinical Package & Package 1  Packages & Costs

 

Support

 

  • Recognised by: schools/ TAFE/ workplace
  • Verified in schools – school is funded – school case manager
  • A school or University can provide an Individual Support Plan or an Individual Education Plan, extra time, and possibly teaching and technical support (seek out: Guidance Officer, STLan (support teacher literacy & numeracy), Head of Special Education Services, Student disability support)
  • CentreLink
  • National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS) https://www.ndis.gov.au

Intellectual disorder

 Intellectual Disability (ID)

 

“Is a disorder with onset during the developmental period that includes both intellectual and adaptive behavioural deficits” (DSM-5). May struggle with reasoning, problem solving, planning, abstract thinking, judgement, academic learning, and learning from experience. Behaviourally, may struggle with communication, academics, health & safety, day to day living, social interaction, and independent living.

 

Assessment: Advanced Clinical Package & Package 1  Packages & Costs

 

Support

 

  • Recognised by: schools/ TAFE/ workplace
  • Verified in schools – school is funded – school case manager
  • A school or University can provide an Individual Support Plan or an Individual Education Plan, extra time, and possibly teaching and technical support (seek out: Guidance Officer, STLan (support teacher literacy & numeracy), Head of Special Education Services,  Student disability support)
  • CentreLink
  • National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS) https://www.ndis.gov.au

 

 

Speech and language impairment

An individual presenting with speech (verbal) or receptive (listening comprehension) language difficulties despite their visual spatial processing, or visual non verbal skills falling within age appropriate parameters. In addition to their hearing falling within the ‘normal’ range. Language skills support reading, writing and spelling. Accordingly individuals with a Speech and Language impairment may struggle with academics

 

 

 

Students may appear to present with dyslexia however, the source of the difficulty could be a Speech and Language deficit. Psychologist can provide the initial cognitive assessment test which is part of the diagnostic process.

 

 

 

Assessment: Advanced Clinical Package & Package 1 Packages & Costs

 

 

 

If a speech and Language disorder is suspected; a Speech Pathologist, or a Registered Speech and Language therapist will need to conduct a Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals 5 (CELF 5) assessment, and provide the diagnosis.

 

 

 

Support
• Recognised by: schools/ TAFE/ workplace
• Verified in schools – school is funded – school case manager
• A school or University can provide an Individual Support Plan or an Individual Education Plan, extra time, and possibly teaching and technical support (seek out: Guidance Officer, STLan (support teacher literacy & numeracy), Head of Special Education Services, Student disability support)
• CentreLink
• National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS) https://www.ndis.gov.au

Dyspraxia

Dyspraxia (motor disorder)

 

Developmental Coordination Disorder

 

Learning and execution of coordinated motor skills is substantially below the anticipated age performance range. Usually characterised as the ‘clumsiness disorder’ – slow or inaccurate performance when using fine or gross motor skills including: dropping things, bumping into things, falling over, catching a ball, using scissors, buttoning clothes or tying shoelaces, balance, riding a bike, and participating in sport. It is important to ensure that the disorder is not the result of or better explained by another disorder or disability.

 

 

 

Verbal Dyspraxia (apraxia)

 

Speech Sound disorder

 

Can impact on expressive language resulting in language delays, and impacting on the clarity of speech.

 

  • Dyspraxia may be associated with general learning difficulties or a Specific Learning Disorder

 

 

 

Psychologist can assess for associated learning disorders or delays (and diagnose), and provide preliminary testing for fine and gross motor skills and possible risk. However, a Paediatrician will need to complete the diagnosis as to whether a developmental coordination disorder is present.

 

Assessment: Advanced Clinical Package & Package 1  Packages & Costs

 

Support

 

The level of support will be based on the severity of the disability

 

  • Recognised by: schools/ universities/ workplace
  • A school or University can provide an Individual Support Plan, extra time, and possibly teaching and technical support (seek out: Guidance Officer, STLan (support teacher literacy & numeracy), Head of Department for each subject,  Student disability support)
  • Government examinations including: The English language testing system (IELTS) https://www.ielts.org
  • National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS) https://www.ndis.gov.au

The Make-up of Neuro-Diversity

There can be a convergence between different learning disorders and disability, and how different individuals and disorders present. A great example of this convergence is depicted by Mary Colley…..

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